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Wound-healing is often divided into three or four phases, although the phases overlap considerably: Inflammation/debridement Phase: Injury to blood vessels in the skin triggers the haemostatic pathways that result in coagulation and clot formation. Other chemicals, such as cytokine and growth...
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Worldwide, Newcastle disease (NCD) is probably the most common disease of small household and village poultry flocks. Throughout the world, NCD is known to spread from village to village, town to town, island to island totally decimating chicken populations. Presenting complaints are...
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Cattle with acute local or diffuse peritonitis may grunt spontaneously with almost every expiration; this is usually exaggerated in the recumbent position. However, grunting may also be caused by severe pneumonia, pleurisy and severe pulmonary emphysema. Careful auscultation and percussion of...
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The life cycles of Eimeria spp. are direct. Unsporulated oocysts are passed in the feces from an infected host and develop into the infective stage (sporulated oocysts) in the environment. The original single cell of Eimeria divides, forming four sporoblasts, each of which develops into one...
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Coccidial species are as follows: Cattle: Eimeria zuernii, E. bovis, and E. ellipsoidalis; E. alabamensis, E. auburnensis, and E. wyomingensis Sheep: E. arloingi A (ovina), E. weybridgenis (E. arloingi B), E. crandallis, E. ahsata, and E. ovinoidalis (previously known as E. ninakohlyakimovae)...
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Blindness is manifested as a clinical abnormality by the animal walking into objects that it should avoid. Vision is a cerebral cortical function and is evaluated using the pupillary light reflex, the menace response, and the ability to navigate around a novel obstacle course. The pupillary...
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The main purpose of a cardiovascular system examination in an emergency patient is to detect the presence of shock. In the veterinary field, shock is defined as a lack of oxygen delivery to the tissues. This occurs most commonly secondary to a problem of the circulatory system and hypoperfusion...
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Contagious Bovine Pleuropneumonia (CBPP) is a so-called “List A” disease, making it a notifiable disease to the OIE. To qualify as a CBPP-free country or zone according to the rules of the OIE the country must fulfill the following requirements: Have a record of regular and prompt animal...
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Respiration may be accompanied by audible noises that indicate certain normal or abnormal occurrences in the respiratory tract such as: sneezing, snorting, stridor, stertor or snoring, wheezing, roaring, expiratory grunting, snuffling, bubbling and rattling sounds. Sneezing is a sudden...
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Respiratory movements are involuntary and are stimulated and modified by the respiratory centers in the medulla. Respiratory failure is the terminal stage of respiratory insufficiency in which the activity of the respiratory centers diminishes to the point where movements of respiratory muscles...
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A cough is defined as ‘a reflex action causing sudden expulsion of air from the respiratory tract’. Coughing is a common clinical sign that occurs in several medical conditions and it is important to determine whether the cough is dry and hacking or whether the cough is moist and productive...
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Acute respiratory distress is a true respiratory emergency and has many possible causes. They include: Airway obstruction e.g. by a foreign body such as a ball. Trauma, e.g. road traffic accident. Infections of the lungs. Laryngeal paralysis. Poisoning. Neoplasia. Overdose of anaesthetic...
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Bovine petechial fever is a rickettsiosis of cattle caused by Ehrlichia (Cytoecetes) ondiri. The disease occurs in the highlands of Kenya and Tanzania at altitudes of 1,500 to 3,000 m, although it is considered likely to occur in neighboring countries with similar topography. Characteristically...
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Anaphylaxis is an acute disease of often life threatening severity caused by an antigen-antibody (IgE) reaction. If severe it can result in anaphylactic shock. Aetiology Most commonly, severe anaphylactic reactions are seen in farm animals following the parenteral administration of a drug or...
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Free gas bloat is excessive accumulation of free gas in the dorsal sac of the rumen. Aetiology Any condition causing oesophageal obstruction or interference with normal eructation can result in accumulation of free gas in the rumen. Common causes include lesions of the oesophageal groove...
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Frothy bloat results from high protein levels in cattle grazing lush leguminous pasture and clover-rich grass. Aetiology: Rumen fluid viscosity is raised, causing small bubbles to form and leading to a stable froth that cannot be eructated normally. Signs: Rumen tympany develops over several...
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The right forelimb is back in this calving cow. Leg back is a common malposture in cattle obstetrics. Aetiology This is a malposture occurring during first-stage labour. Clinical Presentation The calf ’s head and one forefoot are presented at the vulva. Farmers will often apply...
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Puerperal metritis should be defined as an abnormally enlarged uterus and a fetid watery red-brown uterine discharge, associated with signs of systemic illness (decreased milk yield, dullness or other signs of toxaemia) and fever of >39.5°C, within 21 days after parturition. Aetiology...
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Aflatoxins are metabolites produced by fungi growing on spoiled feeds. Increased humidity and warm temperatures are associated with fungal growth. The most important aflatoxin toxicosis is associated with the ingestion of Aspergillus spp. Aspergillus flavus, A. nomius, and A. parasiticus are...
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